Annotated Rogerian Argument Outline
Reflect on the goal of a Classical Argument: to take a position on one side of an issue and try to persuade the audience by refuting the opposing position. Now, consider that a Rogerian Argument objectively explores both sides of the same issue, identifying common ground and proposing a compromise based on that common ground.
This is an annotated outline, meaning it explains the purpose of each paragraph. Read through this document, then use your understanding of the paragraph goals to construct your own outline. A skeleton outline is included at the end of the document for you to copy/paste and build your own outline. Be sure to include all of these paragraphs in the correct order.
Before you begin
Consider the rhetorical situation:
Your Audience: Two groups who share a common problem but disagree about how to solve it.
Your Purpose: To explain each perspective to the other side so that their common goal or value becomes clear, then to propose a compromise that brings each side together to move towards achieving the goal.
Your Role: Although you may prefer one approach over the other, your role is to be an objective mediator who reduces the conflict by proposing a compromise that benefits both sides. Word choice and tone must be free of bias.
Parts of a Rogerian Argument • Introduction:
Provide some history and context for the issue and provide an overview of the controversy or disagreement surrounding it. Appeal to pathos to make a connection with the audience so that they, too, feel a need to reach a compromise. Then, state a thesis that is a Claim of Fact, noting the disagreement and suggesting a way forward through compromise.
• Body Paragraphs:
1. Overview of Side A. Keep the tone objective and support this paragraph by using research that accurately illustrates the views of that side. (Think of this as Side A’s “main claim.”)
2. Validation of Side A. Identify and explain the most convincing points of Side A’s argument. Help the reader see the link between these points and Side’s A’s ultimate goal or value. (Think of this as Side A’s “sub-claims.”)
3. Overview of Side B. Keep the tone objective and support this paragraph by using research that accurately illustrates the views of that side. (Think of this as Side B’s “main claim.”)
4. Preferability of Side B. Focus on the parts of Side B’s viewpoint that are most convincing and use logos and ethos evidence to demonstrate their strength. (Think of this as Side B’s sub-claims).
5. Use one or more paragraphs to do the following:
a. concede that Side B’s perspective is not perfect (provide details), but
b. show that Side B’s approach will best meet the goals and/or values of both sides (explain how and support with evidence).
6. Restate the issue to remind the audience that both sides share a common problem. Point out that both sides have a common goal and shared values, then propose a compromise that will reduce the conflict and move both parties towards the common goal. The compromise must be something new that neither side has considered and it must be achievable. Do not propose something that has already been tried and failed. Do not ask either side to simply change their minds about their position.
Review the strongest points of both sides and identify overlap in views and shared goals. Remind them that the proposed compromise will achieve some, if not all, of the hoped-for outcomes of both sides. Provide a call to action or a warning about the consequences of inaction.
See the next page for a skeleton outline you can copy and paste to create your outline.
II. SIDE A
III. SIDE B
b. PREFERABILITY OF THIS POSITION
IV. CONCESSION AND ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FOR SIDE B
V. PROPOSED COMPROMISE
AEH Division 1
ENGL 1213: Composition II Value: 250 points
Essay 2: Rogerian Argument
Purpose The purpose of Essay 2 is to construct a Rogerian Argument. Students will use research skills and rhetorical analysis to investigate conflicting viewpoints on an issue with state or national impact. By addressing conflicting viewpoints fairly, accurately, and empathetically, the result of a Rogerian argument is a compromise- based solution that reduces the conflict and resolves at least part of the issue. Rogerian argument skills can be used in academic writing, interpersonal communications, and professional environments.
Requirements The essay should include the following:
• MLA Format • 4-5 pages (double spaced), not including the Works Cited page • In-text citations in the body of the essay • Works Cited page with your credible sources • Minimum of 4 sources
Tasks To complete this assignment, you should:
• Utilize Invention Techniques: Before writing the essay, begin identifying your issue through a
series of invention techniques, including but not limited to the following: brainstorming, listing, clustering, questioning, and conducting preliminary research.
• Plan and organize your essay: After the invention process, it is important to begin planning the organizational pattern for the essay. Planning includes gathering and evaluating sources, identifying your thesis, establishing main ideas (or topic sentences) for each paragraph, supporting each paragraph with appropriate evidence, and creating ideas for the introductory and concluding paragraphs. Follow the Method of Organization provided above.
• Draft and revise your essay: Once you have completed the planning process, write a rough draft of your essay. Next, take steps necessary to improve, polish, and revise your draft before turning it in for a final grade. The revision process includes developing ideas, ensuring the thesis statement
Grades for this Essay
25% Of the overall grade for the course
Identify your issue using invention techniques
Gather and evaluate sources that represent both sides of the issue
Establish a thesis and academic level paragraphs
Write a rough draft and complete revision exercises
Submit a polished, academic level essay.
AEH Division 2
connects to the main ideas of each paragraph, taking account of your evidence and supporting details, checking for proper use of MLA citation style, reviewing source integration, avoiding plagiarism, and proofreading for formatting and grammatical errors.
• Submit a polished, academic level essay. • Grades for this Essay: 250 points; 25% of the overall grade for the course
Method of Organization for the Assignment • An introduction paragraph that provides history and context for the issue and provides an overview
of the controversy surrounding it. • A body paragraph that accurately and objectively explains the viewpoint of Side A. • A body paragraph that empathetically validates strong aspects of the viewpoint of Side A. • A body paragraph that accurately and objectively explains the viewpoint of Side B. • A body paragraph that fairly explains the validity and preferability of Side B. • One or more body paragraphs to achieve the following: concede the imperfection of Side B; identify aspect(s) of Side B that benefit both sides; propose a productive and feasible compromise based on common goals or values.
• A conclusion paragraph that concisely reviews the strongest points of both sides, identifies common goals and/or values, and reminds both sides that the proposed compromise satisfies at least part of the common goal.
Writing Prompt & Rhetorical Situation Use the same topic you wrote about for your Classical Argument Essay. With an objective mindset, your assignment is to consider the goals and values of at least two viewpoints on the topic by conducting further research. Your research should focus on the state- or national-level impact of the issue. This activity will help you develop a holistic understanding of the issue and the source of the conflict between viewpoints. Your goal in the essay is to objectively describe multiple viewpoints on the topic, then to present a feasible solution or compromise that helps to reduce the conflict and moves towards a resolution of the issue. Be sure to follow the Method of Organization shown above.
Criteria for Success
A summary of the grading criteria for this assignment are as follows. For detailed criteria, see the assignment rubric.
Category Description Points Mechanics Students will communicate using academic language and conventions of
Standard American English. 30
Formatting Students will format an essay utilizing MLA style formatting. 15 Works Cited Students will create a works cited page utilizing MLA style guidelines. 15 In-text Citations Students will utilize MLA style citations and format. 15 Critical Thinking Students will demonstrate the ability to think critically: to analyze, critique and draw reasoned conclusions. 35
Integrate Evidence Students will gather and integrate credible evidence from a variety of sources.
Organization Students will present information in a unified and coherent manner. 40 Content and Analysis
Students will write an essay that responds to all parts of the prompt. 45
Total 250 pts.
Rogerian Argument Checklist
Reviewing your essay one last time is an important part of ensuring you have done all you can to get the best grade. This checklist will help you look for elements you can easily fix before submitting your essay. Make sure you can say yes to every item on this list. If you check no or don’t understand the paper element description, review lesson materials in Moodle or ask your professor or Writing Center tutor for help.
|Paper Element – Format||Yes||No|
|It has a header with the last name and consecutive page numbers in the upper right-hand corner about ½” from the top of the page. The header is also in the correct font: Times New Roman size 12.|
|The essay title is your own. It is not the name of the assignment and it is not punctuated. It should indicate what the essay will be about.|
|The title is capitalized correctly.Capitalize the following:· Words with more than four letters· The first and last word· Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions.Lowercase the following:· articles, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions.|
|It follows MLA format requirements: 1-inch margins all around, Times New Roman 12 point font, double-spaced, no space after paragraphs of the same style, and all first lines of a paragraph indented .5”Beginning at the top, 1” margin, you’ve listed the following information, double-spaced:First Name Last NameProfessor’s Title and NameENGL 1213Day Month Year – in this order and without a comma|
|The essay meets the length and source requirements (4 to 5 full pages; 4 quality sources).|
|Paper Element – Mechanics|
|It does not include first-person pronouns “I” or “we,” or the second-person pronoun “you.”|
|It does not use cliché and trite phrasing like “back in the day,” “nowadays,” or “once upon a time.”|
|Any acronyms or initialisms like OCCC are spelled out the first time like this: Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC). It only uses the acronym after introducing it this way.|
|It does not try to speak for the world in the essay by using phrases like “around the world” or “in society today.”|
|The writing is not too casual. It is written in complete sentences, does not use contractions, explains any jargon or terms unfamiliar to the reader; it does not use slang.|
|None of the sentences begin with conjunctions. These include the words for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.|
|It does not address the reader directly or announce what will happen anywhere in the essay. Here is one example: Next, we will talk about gun safety. Another example is: Let us talk about chemicals.|
|A grammar checker has been used to correct sentence fragments, run-on sentences, comma splice errors, subject-verb agreement, verb-tense shift errors, etc.|
|Paper Element – In-Text Citations|
|If you used a quote as a “hook,” it is placed within quotation marks and a correct citation has been provided there and on the Works Cited page.|
|Quotes are integrated using the 3-part ICE method (introduce, cite, explain)|
|Quotes are limited to 2-3 lines maximum. It does not make use of “block quoting.” The length of the essay does not justify the use of such a large amount of material that is not the author’s own.|
|Quotes are used to support the assertions/claims of each side of the issue, not to write a sentence. The author’s ideas are not used to support the sources. In other words, the essay is mostly the author’s voice. It does not have mostly quotes, paraphrases, and summaries from sources.|
|The sources are credible, reliable, and reflect college-level information or academic research.|
|In-text citations use proper MLA formatting and guidelines for citation information.|
|No phrases or sentences copied from sources are included without quotation marks and correct MLA parenthetical citations.|
|Paraphrased or summarized information from sources begin with a signal phrase (ex: “According to”) and end with correct parenthetical citations.|
|Paper Element – Paragraphs|
|Each paragraph represents part of the Rogerian Argument structure (The parts are not introduced with headers or by using the words: introduction, Side A, Side B, Opposing Side, etc.)|
|Transitions:· Transition words or phrases are used to help the reader move from paragraph to paragraph, and from one essay section to the next.· A list of transition words and phrases can be found here: https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/style/transitions/|
|Paragraphs do not end OR begin with quotes or any other source. (See ICE method for quoting).|
|Introduction: The essay has a clear introductory paragraph that engages the reader and supplies context for the topic and issue about to be presented. It concludes with a specific thesis that is clearly stated and reflects the purpose of a Rogerian argument. A Rogerian thesis should not argue for one side over the other.|
|Clear topic sentences in the body paragraphs help the reader follow along as the various parts of the argument are given.|
|The author stays neutral when describing both sides of the issue. Insulting or condescending language is not used.|
|Topic sentences should not be quotes or paraphrased/summarized evidence. They cannot start with pronouns (“I” or “you” or “we”)|
|Sub claims and Evidence in paragraphs:· Claims are written in the author’s own words.· Every time a claim is made, supporting evidence from research is provided to support the claim and the evidence is correctly cited.|
|The common ground or compromise section does not ask one side to change their minds, does not try to “win,” and does not propose a solution that is already in practice or that has been tried and failed. A true compromise requires both sides to give a little in order to make progress.|
|The essay has a strong conclusion paragraph that provides a summary, final thought, or both. It does not introduce a new idea. The conclusion paragraph does not begin with, “In conclusion.”|
|Paper Element – Works Cited Page|
|The Works Cited page begins on a new page.|
|The title of the Works Cited page is centered and appears at the top 1” margin. It is not underlined, bold, etc. It is in Times New Roman, 12-pt font.|
|The sources in the Work Cited page have the proper in-text citation in the text. (The in-text citation should reflect the first item of the citation on the Works Cited page).|
|Paper Element – Prepare for Final Submission|
|You have double-checked the assignment sheet, outline, and your instructor’s specific requirements.|
|You have reviewed your instructor’s and peers’ feedback on your outline/rough draft, etc.|
|The essay is saved ONLY as a Microsoft Word .docx or PDF file|
|The file is saved in the following format:LastName, FirstName – Assignment Name (Course Name)|