Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, and Immune Systems

BIO 202 Summer 2021
EXAM 2 Study Questions: Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, and Immune Systems

1. Following a large increase in sympathetic output from the vasomotor center, what tissues will get less blood (increased resistance, reduced flow), and which ones will still get plenty of flow (will not be affected by sympathetic vasoconstriction)? How is sympathetic control of skeletal muscle arterioles different from other vascular beds?

2. Describe short-term regulation of blood pressure. Include A) the parts of the negative feedback reflex, and B) the chemical (hormonal) controls (not just chemoreceptor reflexes, but what chemicals can affect blood pressure, say by altering vasoconstriction). What is the main parameter that is adjusted, i.e. that makes the greatest change in blood pressure in the short-term?

3. Briefly describe the direct and indirect renal mechanisms of long-term blood pressure control.

4. Describe autoregulation, explaining how the two main types work, and what their functions are. What’s unusual about autoregulation in the lung? What is the advantage of that?

5. What are the main (known) causes of, and risk factors associated with, chronic hypertension? What are the long-term consequences? How can it be managed, or treated?

6. Define “circulatory shock.” What are the symptoms? What is “hypovolemic” shock? What other types of circulatory shock are there, and what are their causes?

7. What is capillary filtration? What are the forces that govern the rate of filtration? What happens to that balance of forces during vasodilation (reduced peripheral resistance (upstream of the capillary)), and what happens as a result?

8. Where does the fluid in the lymphatic system come from, and where does it end up? What are the main driving forces/mechanisms that move the fluid through the lymphatic system?

9. What are the main lymphoid organs/structures? What cell types are found in them, and what are their primary functions?

10. What is the complement system? What does it do to bacteria, and how? What is another effect of complement activation, and what factor(s) is(are) involved?

11. Interferons are referred to as antiviral proteins. What stimulates their production, and how do they protect uninfected cells?

12. Describe the humoral and cell-mediated parts of the adaptive immune response.

13. What is meant by a primary and a secondary immune response? Which one is faster, and why? How do vaccines fit into this scheme?

14. Describe five mechanisms of antibody action. In other words, what beneficial things happen as a result of their binding their target antigens?

15. Name the five antibody classes, and where each would most likely be found in the body. 16. What are active and passive humoral immunity? What is the biggest difference in the long run? Which do vaccines produce?

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