Compare S. Lem’s portrayal of artificial intelligence (e.g., the Governing Machine in “Twenty- Fourth Voyage” and the intelligent “Washing Machines” in the “Washing Machine Tragedy”) to P.K. Dick’s in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. What are some of the philosophical, ethical, and legal issues the authors bring up? Make some judgment of the tonal differences between the authors, as Lem is often ironic or satirical, and Dick more often has a tone of realistic or even epic seriousness.

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