Confucianism and Daoism

by | Mar 19, 2021 | College (3-4), Critical Thinking, Religious Studies

Online exam presented me with these four questions please answer them fully. I will attach notes and/or readings so you can further properly answer the 5 questions. In the end, I will attach two sections one labeled Confucianism and one Daoism with notes and readings where you can find most of the answers. If you use any online sources please site them. NOTE: these are individual questions so answer them separately not in essay format. 

1. What are the “four sprouts” (siduan 四端) according to the Mengzi? Do you consider this to be a plausible and adequate theory of moral psychology? (400 words or more) Copy and paste link below it should help you further answer the question, feel free to look online if you do please site

2. Identify one of the “wu-forms”, that is forms of practical “negation” as articulated in early Daoist philosophical texts. Provide a brief “working definition” or “gloss” on the wu-form you’ve chosen to interpret. (400 words or more)

3. Choose three terms from each of the following conceptual clusters. 400 or more words

In your own words gloss the three terms in both of the concept clusters. For each cluster show how the three terms relate conceptually by explaining their philosophical significance as revealed in any of the passages we have read for class. Part of your explanation of conceptual coherence should involve using the three terms transliterated in a grammatically correct and philosophically reasonable English sentence.

Confucian Vocabulary Cluster: ren 仁, yi 義, li 禮, zhi 知, xin 心, xing 性, dao 道, de 德, tian 天, di 地, xiao 孝

Daoist Vocabulary Cluster: dao 道, de 德, xin 心, qing 情, xing 性, wuwei 無為, yi 易, le 樂, bian 辨

4. For the following four passages of text answer the following three questions:

1) What is the source text?

2) This is part of a dialogue—whom is speaking to whom?

3) What core teaching is being presented here?


Text 1: “How could I dare to lay claim to either sageliness (sheng 聖) or Goodness (ren 仁)? What can be said about me is no more than this: I work at it without growing tired and encourage others without growing weary.”


Text 2: “Let’s go back to your original question, please. You asked me how I know what fish enjoy—so you already knew that I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao.”


Text 3: “Gaozi said, ‘What you do not get from doctrines (yan 言), do not seek for in your heart (xin 心). What you do not get from your heart, do not seek for in the qi 氣.’ ‘What you do not get from your heart, do not seek for in the qi,’ is acceptable. ‘What you do not get from doctines, do not seek for in your heart,’ is unacceptable.’

Your resolution (zhi 志) is the commander of the qi. Qi is that which fills up the body. When your resolution is fixed somewhere, the qi sets up camp there. Hence, it is said, ‘Maintain your resolution. Do not inure the qi.'”

Text 4: “Now, let us try to imagine a situation where we do away with the authority of lords and superiors, do without the transforming influence of ritual and morality, discard the order provided by the laws and rectitude, do without the restraints of penal laws and punishments—were this to occur, let us consider how the people of the world would deal with each other. In such a situation the strong would inflict harm on the weak and rob them; the many would tyrannize the few and wrest their possessions from them; and the perversity and rebelliousness of the whole world would quickly ensure their mutual destruction. If we consider the implications of these facts, it is plain that human nature is evil and that any good in humans is acquired by conscious exertion.”

5. Write a word reflective essay on the concept of personal identity. How might the question ‘who are you?’ relate to the forming of ideals of self as ‘what do you want to ultimately become?’ How do differing conceptions of personal identity shape ethical, political, and religious projects in classical Chinese sources? In answering this essay you should develop your ideas in close conversation with at least one major text from our (Confucian) and (Daoist) module. MAKE THIS QUESTION A PAGE AND A HALF WORTH OF WORK. Definitely site the articles and readings that I will send you may choose on which you want to write about ( which ever one is easiest)

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