BIO 202 EXAM 1 Study Questions

EXAM 1 Study Questions

  1. Where does aldosterone come from, and what does aldosterone do? Describe the four mechanisms by which aldosterone release is regulated.
  1. How is the blood level of thyroid hormone regulated? What are its target tissues, and how does it work? Name the thyroid hormone imbalances (excess and insufficiency), their most common causes, and how they affect the body.
  1. Describe the connections between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland: how do the hypothalamic hormones get to the anterior pituitary gland, and how is the posterior pituitary gland connected/related? What are the main pituitary gland hormones, and what hypothalamic hormones stimulate and inhibit their release?
  1. Name the primary glucocorticoid, where it is produced.  How it is regulated (what triggers its release, and what limits its levels), and how does it affect its target tissues – what does it do? What happens when there’s too much of it? Why would that most likely happen?
  1. What is the mechanism of action, and the function, of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and how is it regulated?
  1. A child shows the following symptoms: 1) deficient growth, 2) failure to show sexual development, 3) lower than normal basal metabolic rate (BMR), and 4) decreased ability to respond to chronic stress.  Given your knowledge of endocrinology, what is the most likely cause of these symptoms?  Explain your logic using proper physiological terminology.
  1. A 68-year-old male is admitted to the hospital for emphysema.  He is hypoxic and his labs reveal low arterial blood oxygen levels (poor hemoglobin saturation).   His hematocrit is 65%.  The physician has told him that he has a type of polycythemia. What does she mean by this, and why does he have it (what is the mechanism)?
  1. Define the term anemia. List FIVE types of anemia, and what causes them.
  1. What are leukemias, how do they arise (a change in what cell type is the cause), and how can they be treated?
  1. Name and describe the main steps in forming a blood clot in a torn blood vessel. Name any involved cell types, and the main chemical and protein agents.
  1. What are the most common disorders of coagulation (including overactive coagulation and insufficient coagulation)? Describe the underlying causes, and common treatments.
  1. What is congestive heart failure? What are three typical causes? If the left heart fails, blood backs up in the pulmonary circulation because the left ventricle can’t pump it away as it returns. What then happens in the lungs that worsens the situation?
  1. What are the three main factors affecting stroke volume (the terms), and what do the terms mean? What is the Frank-Starling law of the heart?
  1. A 73 year old patient is admitted to the coronary care unit of a hospital with a diagnosis of left ventricular heart failure due to myocardial infarction. Explain what a myocardial infarction is, and what most likely led up to it, over the long term, and immediately preceding it.

EXAM 1 Study Questions

  1. Where does aldosterone come from, and what does aldosterone do? Describe the four mechanisms by which aldosterone release is regulated.
  1. How is the blood level of thyroid hormone regulated? What are its target tissues, and how does it work? Name the thyroid hormone imbalances (excess and insufficiency), their most common causes, and how they affect the body.
  1. Describe the connections between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland: how do the hypothalamic hormones get to the anterior pituitary gland, and how is the posterior pituitary gland connected/related? What are the main pituitary gland hormones, and what hypothalamic hormones stimulate and inhibit their release?
  1. Name the primary glucocorticoid, where it is produced.  How it is regulated (what triggers its release, and what limits its levels), and how does it affect its target tissues – what does it do? What happens when there’s too much of it? Why would that most likely happen?
  1. What is the mechanism of action, and the function, of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and how is it regulated?
  1. A child shows the following symptoms: 1) deficient growth, 2) failure to show sexual development, 3) lower than normal basal metabolic rate (BMR), and 4) decreased ability to respond to chronic stress.  Given your knowledge of endocrinology, what is the most likely cause of these symptoms?  Explain your logic using proper physiological terminology.
  1. A 68-year-old male is admitted to the hospital for emphysema.  He is hypoxic and his labs reveal low arterial blood oxygen levels (poor hemoglobin saturation).   His hematocrit is 65%.  The physician has told him that he has a type of polycythemia. What does she mean by this, and why does he have it (what is the mechanism)?
  1. Define the term anemia. List FIVE types of anemia, and what causes them.
  1. What are leukemias, how do they arise (a change in what cell type is the cause), and how can they be treated?
  1. Name and describe the main steps in forming a blood clot in a torn blood vessel. Name any involved cell types, and the main chemical and protein agents.
  1. What are the most common disorders of coagulation (including overactive coagulation and insufficient coagulation)? Describe the underlying causes, and common treatments.
  1. What is congestive heart failure? What are three typical causes? If the left heart fails, blood backs up in the pulmonary circulation because the left ventricle can’t pump it away as it returns. What then happens in the lungs that worsens the situation?
  1. What are the three main factors affecting stroke volume (the terms), and what do the terms mean? What is the Frank-Starling law of the heart?
  1. A 73 year old patient is admitted to the coronary care unit of a hospital with a diagnosis of left ventricular heart failure due to myocardial infarction. Explain what a myocardial infarction is, and what most likely led up to it, over the long term, and immediately preceding it.

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