Logical semantics

Create a 5 pages page paper that discusses logical semantics. For instance, ?x.x.@kim is used to represent the proper name of Kim in the noun phrase. When in the noun phrase, it can be used as a function. Appropriate lambda expressions are applied in lexical levels. The verb saw, can be expressed using the expression ?w.?z(w@?x.saw(z.x))The figure shows that representation of the left child node is applied to the representation of the right child node in every level of the tree. Most of the work is done before the combinations in constructing appropriate lambda expressions (Bekiro?lu 15).The study deals with bare plural constructions. Bare plurals are Noun Phrases (NP) of English that do not show determiner before the head noun such as ‘ineffective arguments’. Noun phrases have been a conundrum for philosophers and grammarians because of the possibilities of many interpretations (413).Carlson mentions two distinct uses of NP i.e., a) there is a split between generic and existential uses of NP and b) semantic plural of NP is determined by the singular indefinite article. His thesis is that the uses of bare plural (øNP) are facets of syntactically and semantically unified phenomena, and the different interpretations can be attributed in a predictable manner (414). A base rule introducing articles is: Art ? [+-definite]The + definite is the, which occurs after singulars and plurals while – definite is the ‘a’ deleted before plurals by the transformational rule. Therefore, if ø serves as a plural counterpart of indefinite article a, then the two will share all the relevant semantic properties, except for those explainable by the presence or absence of plurality (415). For instance, consider the sentences 1aband 2ab in which E is an existential quantifier, Sl singular and Pl.Indefinite plurals show ambiguity compared to their singular forms.&nbsp. Carlson identifies sentences derived from ø as opacity form while sentences containing indefinite singular as the transparency form (417). But some cases exist where the plural has a narrower scope than the singular (421).

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