Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner and Edward C. Tolman

Compose a 1250 words essay on Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner and Edward C. Tolman. While discussing on Skinners theory Mclntyre says “He rejected the idea of inner causes for behavior, and placed emphasis on observable behavior as opposed to the theorizing, based on unverifiable evidence, often done by others” (Mclntyre, 2003).Skinner believed that the reappearance of a behavior was solely due to the consequences present at the time of reappearance. He firmly believed that the progression of a certain behavior can be hindered with a chain of reinforcements like a behavior pattern being rewarded every time will eventually result in the behavior getting vanished. While Skinner’s theory is still practiced in modern psychology, animal trainers, who take the help of “operant conditioning” to discipline the animals, frequently use it. This will mean conditioning of the animal to produce a behavior motivated by reward.While both Watson and Skinner may have similar outlook on behavior, there is a major difference. Skinner believed that due importance should be given to the inner part of the behavior like thinking, feeling including emotions, while considering overall behavior of the person. Watson was of the opinion that such mental states cannot be studied scientifically and thus should not be used for referencing the behavior patterns.On the other hand, Tolman was not a radical behaviorist like Skinner. Tolman believed that the behavior was not just an automatic response to the stimulation of a reward.. He believed that learning could occur without the use of a rein forcer.

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