Read the Following Case Study.
THE CASE: Amanda Bishon is grade five teacher (this is Amanda’s first year teaching grade 5). Her school is located in a culturally diverse community; many of the students come from a low socio-economic background.

She has to teach the following LA objective: Grade 5 Writing, pg. 100-101

2.7 make revisions to improve the content, clarity, and interest of their written work, using a variety of strategies (e.g., use coloured pens and/or cutting and pasting to identify and move chunks of text that need to be reordered; add or substitute words and phrases, including vocabulary from other subjects and figurative language such as similes and personification, to achieve particular effects; adjust sentence length and complexity to suit the audience and purpose; check that language is inclusive and non-discriminatory).

She would like her students to integrate figurative language such as similes and metaphors into their writing. During her introductory lesson her students became very confused between the distinction between similes and metaphors. Below is an excerpt of the conversation Amanda has during the lesson with Kevin, one of her students:

Amanda: A simile is a type of metaphor* that compares two items using the words “like” and “as.”

Kevin: Excuse me Ms. Bishon. How can a simile and metaphor be the same thing?

Amanda: Well, the simile and the metaphor are both figures of speech.

Kevin: Does that mean that when you use one, you can use the other?

Amanda: Not quite. You should use a simile when you need to compare something by using the word ‘like’.

Kevin: So, I can say, “a cat is like a dog”?

Amanda: No, no. Think about how you would use a metaphor instead. You could say, “look what the cat dragged in”.

Kevin: Umm. So, why is that a metaphor?

Amanda: It’s a metaphor because you compare what a person is doing with what a cat is doing without using the word ‘like’ or ‘as’.

Kevin: But then if they’re not the same thing, how come you said they were?

Amanda: Well, they are the same thing because they are both describing something. The simile is a type of metaphor because it’s more popular.

Kevin: Then, can I say “my little brother is like a cat because he sleeps all day” and say to my parents “look what the cat dragged in” and point to him too? Is that how they are the same thing?

Amanda: Not…really.

The class as whole become confused and group declines. Amanda, stops the lesson and moves onto math.

THE REQUIREMENTS: Compose an expository essay (8 pages Max), complete with an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion addressing the case study presented above. To help Amanda’s instruction please discuss: Constructivism; Vygotsky (Zone of Proximal Development); Piaget’s known schema development (equilibration); Brian Cambourne’s conditions for learning and Gee’s Learning Principles. Finally, describe a series of intervention lessons that would address immersion, demonstration, and practice over the course of three days’ worth of lesson plans – include this at the end of your essay (as an appendices). [*Hint: a simile is not a type of metaphor].

You are encouraged to find and reference additional resources to write the most comprehensive response. Use APA formatting.

Interview Question:  How do you prepare effective lessons?

Planning & Analysis

These steps will help you prepare your response to the case study/learning scenario: 

Examine the Case/Learning Scenario Thoroughly

  • highlight relevant facts

1.   Focus Your Analysis: Identify key problem(s)

How did the teacher contribute to student confusion?  What should have been considered in the planning and execution of the lesson?

How did student beviour and comments highlight the lack of planning and content knowledge of the teacher?

  • Teacher beviour 
  • Teacher thinking 
  • Student beviour/thinking (defined by beviour, questions etc.) 
  • Resources 
  • Complexity of learning objectives (skills, knowledge & Dispositions) 
  • Types of resources used 
  • Teaching strategies (if present) 

2.    Uncover Possible Solutions/Changes Needed 

  • How do these theories reinforce and support one another?
  • Plan a lesson to reteach the concepts with greater clarity.
  • Use your knowledge of: Constructivism; Vygotsky (Zone of Proximal Development); Piaget’s schema development (equilibration); Brian Cambourne’s conditions for learning. You are encouraged to find additional reference and resources to write a comprehensive response. 
  • Answering the assignment question:
  1. Introduction 

Question: How do you prepare effective lessons? 

First, you need to identify and describe curriculum planning principles that can be considered in the architecture and design of effective lesson/units.

  • Open with addressing the importance of creating lessons that support student participation and engagement; be clear in defining the distinguishing between the two characteristics. You will need to stress the importance of theory-driven and developmentally sound curriculum planning.   You could reflect on an experience in student teaching and elaborate with Text-Text, Text-Self and Text-World Connections (see hyper link below). https://www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/teaching-strategies/text-text-text-self-text-world
  • Thesis/Declaration of Problem and Response Overview:
    •  For example:

The lesson illustrated in the case study was problematic for the following reason…  In this essay response, I will identify why the lesson was problematic for student(s) and the teacher. First, I will outline principles of effective lesson planning. Second, I will provide a theoretically grounded critique of why the lesson was not effective. Thirdly, I will draw on learning theorists and their work to offer solutions for a better lesson approach. To illustrate my recommendations, I will create lessons focusing on Cambourne’s conditions of immersion, demonstration, and practice (also referred to as approximation). Before presenting my lessons, I offer a detailed summary of how the individual lessons work together to strength student understanding of similes.  

2) Body (Evaluation of the Case)

Based on your analysis of the case study write a detailed response. Clearly describing and supporting why the lesson was ineffective.

  • Identify the key problems and issues in the case study. Provide examples from the cases study description (dialogue) whenever possible. 
  • Theory Practice Links. Include references to articles that explain   considerations to effective curriculum/lesson planning. 
  • Demonstrate that you have researched the problems in this case study. Quotes from provided sources and those found will be evidence of this effort. 
  • Outline relevant theories that explain the problem and support your solution (Constructivism, Cambourne’s and Gees should be more than enough). 
  • James Paul Gee:  https://www.legendsoflearning.com/blog/james-paul-gee-game-based-learning/

3) Summary and Solutions

Summarize your observations/conclusions. Consider this as a transition section that introduces your lessons plans.

4) Paper Structure and Referencing:

  • 8 Pages Max
  • 8-10 References, APA format. 

5) Penalties:

  • Improper referencing or plagiarism will result in a grade of 0. 

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